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Create certificate

Simple script


DAYS=$[ 5 * 365 ]

if [ $# -eq 0 ]
  printf "usage: $0 <webserver-name> [<alias1> <alias2>...]\n"
  exit 1

declare -a subject_alt_names;
for i in ${*}
  subject_alt_names=( ${subject_alt_names[*]} "DNS:${i}")
echo ${subject_alt_names[*]}


openssl req \
	-new \
	-days ${DAYS} \
	-newkey rsa:4096bits \
	-sha512 \
	-x509 \
	-nodes \
	-out ${CRT} \
	-keyout ${KEY} \
	-subj "${BASE_SUBJECT}/CN=${CN}" \
	-reqexts SAN \
	-extensions SAN \
	-config <( 
          cat /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf
          printf "[ext]\nbasicConstraints=CA:FALSE,pathlen:0\n[SAN]\n%s\n" \
            "${subject_alt_names:+subjectAltName = ${subject_alt_names[*]}}"
printf "Put this in your Apache config:\n\n\tSSLCertificateFile    %s\n\tSSLCertificateKeyFile %s\n\n" "${CRT}" "${KEY}"

Adjust the OpenSSL default values

Set the country, etc. to values that match your needs:

# vi /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf

Generate key

# openssl ecparam -genkey -name secp256r1 | openssl ec -aes256 -out server.de.ec-key
read EC key
using curve name prime256v1 instead of secp256r1
writing EC key
Enter PEM pass phrase:
Verifying - Enter PEM pass phrase:

If you don't need a password protected encrypted key file, you can remove the encryption like this:

# openssl ec -in server.de.ec-key -out server.de.ec-key
read EC key
Enter PEM pass phrase:
writing EC key

Issue certificate

# openssl req -new -x509 -sha256 -key server.de.ec-key -out server.de-wildcard.pem -days 1825 -nodes

You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
Country Name (2 letter code) [DE]:
State or Province Name (full name) [Hamburg]:
Locality Name (eg, city) [Hamburg]:
Organization Name (eg, company) [My Site]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) [Sub]:
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:*.server.de
Email Address [ssl@server.de]:

View certificate

# openssl x509 -text -noout -in server.de-wildcard.pem
        Version: 3 (0x2)
        Serial Number: ... (0x...)
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256
        Issuer: C=DE, ST=Hamburg, L=Hamburg, O=My Site, OU=Sub, CN=*.server.de/emailAddress=ssl@server.de
            Not Before: Apr 16 09:35:02 2015 GMT
            Not After : Apr 14 09:35:02 2020 GMT
        Subject: C=DE, ST=Hamburg, L=Hamburg, O=My Site, OU=Sub, CN=*.server.de/emailAddress=ssl@server.de
        Subject Public Key Info:
            Public Key Algorithm: id-ecPublicKey
                Public-Key: (256 bit)
                ASN1 OID: prime256v1
        X509v3 extensions:
            X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 
            X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: 

            X509v3 Basic Constraints: 
    Signature Algorithm: ecdsa-with-SHA256

Configuring Apache

Serving mp4 media files

If your media files are on a network filesystem like CIFS or NFS you should disable memory mapping (EnableMMAP Off) to avoid corrupted data at the client side and allow seeking inside the video.

<Directory /var/www/media-files>
        Options -Indexes

        AllowOverride None
        Require all granted

        <IfModule mod_mime>
          AddType video/mp4 .mp4
        EnableMMAP Off

SSL configuration


<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
        SSLUseStapling On
        SSLStaplingCache      "shmcb:${APACHE_RUN_DIR}/stapling_cache(128000)"
<VirtualHost ssl.server.de:443>
    # ...
    SSLEngine On
    # Do this only if you are sure you have no old clients
    SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1 -TLSv1.1
    # If you need to support old clients use this instead
    # SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1

    SSLCompression off
    SSLHonorCipherOrder On

    # Do this only if you are sure you have no old clients

    # If you need to support old clients use this instead

    SSLCertificateFile      /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl.server.de/fullchain.pem
    SSLCertificateKeyFile   /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl.server.de/privkey.pem

    SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire

    # Generate DH parameters with
    # # openssl dhparam -out /etc/ssl/certs/dhparam_4096.pem 4096
    SSLOpenSSLConfCmd DHParameters "/etc/ssl/certs/dhparam_4096.pem"
    SSLOpenSSLConfCmd ECDHParameters Automatic
    SSLOpenSSLConfCmd Curves secp521r1:secp384r1:prime256v1

    SetEnvIfNoCase Referer ^https://ssl\.server\.de keep_cookies
    RequestHeader unset Cookie env=!keep_cookies

    <IfModule mod_headers.c>
      # https://kb.sucuri.net/warnings/hardening/headers-x-content-type
      Header set X-Content-Type-Options nosniff

      # https://kb.sucuri.net/warnings/hardening/headers-x-frame-clickjacking
      Header append X-FRAME-OPTIONS "SAMEORIGIN"

      # https://kb.sucuri.net/warnings/hardening/headers-x-xss-protection
      Header set X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block"

      # Strict Transport Security
      Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31556926;"

      # Public Key Pins
      Header always set Public-Key-Pins "max-age=5184000; pin-sha256=\"...\"; pin-sha256=\"...\"; includeSubDomains"

    <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
      RewriteEngine On

      # https://kb.sucuri.net/warnings/hardening/http-trace HTTP Trace Method 
      RewriteCond %{REQUEST_METHOD} ^TRACE 
      RewriteRule .* - [F]

SSLLabs A+ with all 100%

If you consider to take this snippet be warned. Old clients have no chance to reach the server.

<VirtualHost ssl.server.de:443>
  # SSL parameters
  SSLEngine On
  SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3 -TLSv1 -TLSv1.1
  SSLHonorCipherOrder on
  SSLUseStapling on
  SSLCompression off
  SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
  SSLCertificateFile      /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl.server.de/fullchain.pem
  SSLCertificateKeyFile   /etc/letsencrypt/live/ssl.server.de/privkey.pem
  SSLOpenSSLConfCmd DHParameters "/etc/ssl/certs/dhparam.pem"
  SSLOpenSSLConfCmd ECDHParameters Automatic
  SSLOpenSSLConfCmd Curves secp521r1:secp384r1:prime256v1
  <IfModule mod_headers.c>
    # Add security and privacy related headers
    Header edit Set-Cookie ^(.*)$ $1;HttpOnly;Secure
    Header always set Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31556926; includeSubDomains; preload"
    Header always set X-Frame-Options SAMEORIGIN
    Header always set X-Content-Type-Options nosniff
    Header set X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block"
    Header set X-Robots-Tag "none"
    SetEnv modHeadersAvailable true

Client certificates

  ## <ClientCertificate>
  SSLVerifyClient none
  SSLCACertificateFile "/var/log/apache2/conf/ca.crt"
  SSLCARevocationFile  "/var/log/apache2/conf/crl.pem"
  SSLCARevocationCheck chain

  CustomLog "/var/log/apache2/logs/ssl_user.log" \
          "%t %h Serial=%{SSL_CLIENT_M_SERIAL}x User=%{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_CN}x \"%r\" %b"

  <Location />
    SSLVerifyClient      require
    SSLVerifyDepth       10
    SSLOptions           +FakeBasicAuth
    SSLRequire       %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O}  eq "Your Organization" \
                 and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"AllowedOU1","AllowedOU2"}
  ## </ClientCertificate>


Top of all sites on your host:

# ls  /var/log/apache2/*.log | xargs -n 1 echo -f | xargs apachetop